But there is a subtle reality of chemistry underlying the reality of medicine where all the body,  organs, tissues, cells and cell organs like chromosomes resolve into chemical molecules and atoms. Those following western paradigms tend to dismiss the narratives of Itihasa Puranas whenever they see linearity and sequential nature of the events are disrupted or wherever any impossible magical narratives are found. (ed.). The new edition focuses on art and borrows stories from regional versions of the epic. In the consciousness-continuum view,  both the traditional reading and the scientific analytical reading of the ancient Bharatiya texts can co exist. [citation needed] The author later added some female characters to be wed to the Pandavas, for example, Arjuna is described as having many wives and consorts next to Subhadra. The birth of Duryodhana took place after the birth of Karna, Yudhishthira and Bhima, but before the birth of the remaining Pandava brothers. 'The Counsels of the Seer Narada: Ritual on and under the Surface of the Mahabharata', in: Sukthankar, Vishnu S. and Shrimant Balasaheb Pant Pratinidhi (1933). [45] This work is sometimes called the "Pune" or "Poona" edition of the Mahabharata. Those following traditional paradigms tend to accept everything in the Itihasa Puranas including the magical impossibilities as well as the  non linearity and non sequentiality of events. These include the Tamil street theatre, terukkuttu and kattaikkuttu , the plays of which use themes from the Tamil language versions of Mahabharata , focusing on Draupadi. The fact that Ambika and Ambalika are sisters is not shown in the family tree. The Mahabharata (Sanskrit Mahābhārata मह भ रत, IPA: [məɦaːˈbʱaːrət ə]) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Ramayana. After being told of his error, he then sees a pond, and assumes it is not water and falls in. The eventual deaths of Dhritarashtra, Gandhari and Kunti in a forest fire when they are living in a hermitage in the Himalayas. Most critics consider the translation by Ganguli to be faithful to the original text. This is blind acceptance. Some of it,  like Brahma’s relationship with Sarasvati, the narrative of Brihaspati-Tara-Chandra, the narrative of Revati-Balarama etc can be explained as astronomical information encoding. Prof. Jaini admits a possibility that perhaps because of his popularity, the Jain authors were keen to rehabilitate Krishna. [35] The late 4th millennium date has a precedent in the calculation of the Kaliyuga epoch, based on planetary conjunctions, by Aryabhata (6th century). Many regional versions of the work developed over time, mostly differing only in minor details, or with verses or subsidiary stories being added. In order to arrange the marriage of young Vichitravirya, Bhishma attends the swayamvara of the three princesses Amba, Ambika and Ambalika, uninvited, and proceeds to abduct them. On explaining the previous life of Draupadi, she ends up being the wife of all five brothers. [42] They invite their Kaurava cousins to Indraprastha. Amba becomes enraged and becomes Bhishma's bitter enemy, holding him responsible for her plight. Few scholars studying the Mahabharata argue that the ancient text doesn’t contain any later addition and that all of Mahabharata is authored by Vyasa soon after the Kurukshetra war. According to what one character says at Mbh. He is an artist and has visualized many scenes from the Mahābhārata which was exhibited in different conference venues. Ancient narratives were dialogue based and the two people conversing had to be alive and contemporary for the dialog to occur and then for others to note it down and render it as a literary work. Buitenen, Johannes Adrianus Bernardus (1978). The Mahābhārata Retold: From Emergence of Brahmānda to Political Unity of Bhāratavarsha, Controversy on ‘Ram Slaying Dragon’; Tracing Indic Connect with Dragons, Genetic Evidence from Rakhigarhi Reinforces ‘Out of India’ Theory, Grand Trunk Road since Pre Mahabharata Times; Here are Evidences, Shumang Lila – Medieval Traditional Theatre Art of Manipur with Contemporary Taste, Aryan Migration Theory: Fraud and Confusion Created to Justify British Rule in India, How Vilification of Festivals is 1st Step towards Eradication of a Culture, Krishna and Arjuna Founder of Indraprastha – Delhi; A Historical Analysis, How Aryan Invasion Theory Used as Socio Political Tool for Religious Conversion. Mahabharata [21] The oldest surviving Sanskrit text dates to the Kushan Period (200 CE).[22]. These characters include Semar, Petruk, Gareng and Bagong, who are much-loved by Indonesian audiences. A Kawi version of the Mahabharata, of which eight of the eighteen parvas survive, is found on the Indonesian island of Bali. It is recited by the sage Vaisampayana, a disciple of Vyasa, to the King Janamejaya who is the great-grandson of the Pandava prince Arjuna. [57] In Telugu film Daana Veera Soora Karna (1977) directed by and starring N. T. Rama Rao depicts Karna as the lead character. Mahabharata has to be seen as an ever growing tree of Mahabharata consciousness and  Vyasa as the nucleus of that consciousness. The end result is a network of information, a collection of ancient voices preserved in the form of a Consciousness Continuum that spans through space and time, ignoring all the space-time boundaries. It also marks the beginning of the Hindu age of Kali Yuga, the fourth and final age of humankind, in which great values and noble ideas have crumbled, and people are heading towards the complete dissolution of right action, morality and virtue. Pandu then retires to the forest along with his two wives, and his brother Dhritarashtra rules thereafter, despite his blindness. This understanding is necessary to study Itihasa Puranas. It then expands through numerous authors,  re-tellers,  alternative narrative  creators,  all expanding on it. Regional versions Many regional versions of the work developed over time, mostly differing only in minor details, or with verses or subsidiary stories being added. [59]Prakash Jha directed 2010 film Raajneeti was partially inspired by the Mahabharata. B. van Buitenen (books 1–5) and, following a 20-year hiatus caused by the death of van Buitenen, is being continued by D. Gitomer of DePaul University (book 6), J. L. Fitzgerald of Brown University (books 11–13) and Wendy Doniger of the University of Chicago (books 14–18). As of today,  those studying Veda Itihasa Puranas are divided into two camps. But many were not convinced of that approach and questioned,  devalued or ignored all such Indological studies into Veda,  Itihasa Puranas. "[4][15] is likely. It described the battle of the Kauravas under the generals viz. Hence there are later growths into Mahabharata. Although the Kaurava is the senior branch of the family, Duryodhana, the eldest Kaurava, is younger than Yudhishthira, the eldest Pandava. So the oldest versions of Ramayana and Mahabharata that we have today are less than 2,500 years ago, but they could be describing events that occurred many hundred years before that. [17][18] However, some scholars, such as John Brockington, argue that Jaya and Bharata refer to the same text, and ascribe the theory of Jaya with 8,800 verses to a misreading of a verse in Adiparvan (1.1.81). These include the Tamil street theatre, terukkuttu and kattaikkuttu , the plays of which use themes from the Tamil language versions of Mahabharata , focusing on Draupadi. Yama then assures him that his siblings and wife would join him in heaven after they had been exposed to the underworld for measures of time according to their vices. The problem arise when they  insist that it need to be read in only one particular way, viz as philosophy alone,  ignoring the geographical,  astronomical and chronological data in it, discrediting any study centered around information layering,  chronology or geography in the Veda Itihasa Puranas. [36] The Aihole inscription of Pulikeshi II, dated to Saka 556 = 634 CE, claims that 3735 years have elapsed since the Bharata battle, putting the date of Mahabharata war at 3137 BCE. Draupadi laughs at him and ridicules him by saying that this is because of his blind father Dhritrashtra. They worked tirelessly for 40 years after studying all the available 160 or more versions of Mahabharata grouped primarily into southern edition,  eastern edition (like Bengal version),  western edition (like Bombay edition) and northern edition and then defined an oldest possible version of Mahabharata containing verses present in all these versions. This has led to the Gita often being described as a concise guide to Hindu philosophy and a practical, self-contained guide to life. It is driven out of a false fear that such studies will lead to the end of the traditional reading of the Veda Itihasa Puranas. Personalities like Duryodhana and Karna, represented in negative terms as ‘evil’ forces, find a more nuanced and less biased space within the regional versions. The Mahabharata itself ends with the death of Krishna, and the subsequent end of his dynasty and ascent of the Pandava brothers to heaven. Stevenson, Robert W., "Tilak and the Bhagavadgita's Doctrine of Karmayoga", in: Minor, p. 44. So someone who lived many decades or generations after the lifetime of Sauti is narrating it to us. The allies of the Kauravas included the kings of Pragjyotisha, Anga, Kekaya, Sindhudesa (including Sindhus, Sauviras and Sivis), Mahishmati, Avanti in Madhyadesa, Madra, Gandhara, Bahlika people, Kambojas and many others. The Mahabharata, "What is found here, may be found elsewhere. Krishna advises him, and after due preparation and the elimination of some opposition, Yudhishthira carries out the rājasūya yagna ceremony; he is thus recognised as pre-eminent among kings. Urubhanga, a Sanskrit play written by Bhāsa who is believed to have lived before Kālidāsa, is based on the slaying of Duryodhana by the splitting of his thighs by Bhima. These regional versions of Mahabharata are also part of the Mahabharata consciousness tree. Archaeological evidence points towards the latter." The Kuru family elders and relatives negotiate and broker a split of the kingdom, with the Pandavas obtaining a new territory. Regional versions Many regional versions of the work developed over time, mostly differing only in minor details, or with verses or subsidiary stories being added. Introduction (Authorship and Date). [49], The first complete English translation was the Victorian prose version by Kisari Mohan Ganguli,[50] published between 1883 and 1896 (Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers) and by M. N. Dutt (Motilal Banarsidass Publishers). Vidura, half-brother to Dhritarashtra and Pandu. However, the Pandavas are warned by their wise uncle, Vidura, who sends them a miner to dig a tunnel. Though initially sticking to chivalrous notions of warfare, both sides soon adopt dishonourable tactics. Aryabhatta's date of February 18 3102 BCE for Mahabharata war has become widespread in Indian tradition. If discovered by the Kauravas, they will be forced into exile for another 12 years. Shantanu has two sons by Satyavati, Chitrāngada and Vichitravirya. The Panchavimsha Brahmana (at 25.15.3) enumerates the officiant priests of a sarpasattra among whom the names Dhrtarashtra and Janamejaya, two main characters of the Mahabharata's sarpasattra, as well as Takshaka, the name of a snake in the Mahabharata, occur.[23]. Yudhishthira has a new capital built for this territory at Indraprastha. The two sides summon vast armies to their help and line up at Kurukshetra for a war. [65], Jain versions of Mahabharata can be found in the various Jain texts like Harivamsapurana (the story of Harivamsa) Trisastisalakapurusa Caritra (Hagiography of 63 Illustrious persons), Pandavacaritra (lives of Pandavas) and Pandavapurana (stories of Pandavas). Kunti raises the five brothers, who are from then on usually referred to as the Pandava brothers. Ultimately, the Pandavas and Balarama take renunciation as Jain monks and are reborn in heavens, while on the other hand Krishna and Jarasandha are reborn in hell. To resolve his father's dilemma, Devavrata agrees to relinquish his right to the throne. There are not many English translations of the Mahabharata, the few that are available are either incomplete or written in the late 1800s or are in poetic style, except one. These include the Tamil street theatre, terukkuttu and kattaikkuttu , the plays of which use themes from the Tamil language versions of Mahabharata , focusing … Many years later, when King Shantanu goes hunting, he sees Satyavati, the daughter of the chief of fisherman, and asks her father for her hand. The addition of the latest parts may be dated by the absence of the Anushasana-parva and the Virata parva from the "Spitzer manuscript". According to the Mahabharata itself, the tale is extended from a shorter version of 24,000 verses called simply Bhārata. Theory of Mahabharata Consciousness: Reconciling Traditional with Analytical Reading. They are valuable in a sense as they carry the later day thoughts of our civilization, and regional variations in the thoughts … The doorkeepers of Vaikuntha are the twins, Jaya and Vijaya, both whose 7 reasons to buy Jaya: Illustrated Retelling of Vyasa fathers a third son, Vidura, by the maid. A. Regional variations of the Mahabharatas, on the other hand, are much more fluid in their portrayal of the epic characters. But in the case of Mahabharata, the later authors credited the original author Vyasa and left no signature of their own. The oldest preserved parts of the text are thought to be not much older than around 400 BCE, though the origins of the epic probably fall between the 8th and 9th centuries BCE. The rivalry and enmity between them and the Pandava brothers, from their youth and into manhood, leads to the Kurukshetra war. We also have three abridged versions of Ramayana in Vana Parva one (smallest,  few verses long) narrated by Lomasha to Yudhisthira, another  (smaller,  a chapter long) narrated by Hanuman to Bhima  and then another (biggest,  18 chapters long ) by Markandeya  to Yudhisthira! The Pandavas have a new palace built for them, by Maya the Danava. Mixed at Studio ZM, Paris. Without looking, Kunti asks them to share whatever it is Arjuna has won among themselves. This city-based storyteller will highlight the many regional versions of Mahabharata Share Via Email Published: 21st November 2020 05:57 AM | Last Updated: 21st November 2020 05:57 AM | A+ A A- Indian economist Bibek Debroy has also begun an unabridged English translation in ten volumes. There is layered growth that occurred into Mahabharata and Ramayana too with many absurd and nonsensical justifications arising out of after-thoughts of original events mentioned in earlier narratives found in Veda,  Itihasa Puranas. But not all of them. [74] In more modern times, Swami Vivekananda, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Mahatma Gandhi and many others used the text to help inspire the Indian independence movement. Though it is true that Abrahamism, with its falsehood and weak facts,  will break when it encounters the truth of the science,  the same is not true about the Dharmic texts. Denying that is like unto denying chemistry and physics by a biologist. Many historians estimate the date of the Kurukshetra war to Iron Age India of the 10th century BCE. They spend their final year in disguise in the court of Virata, and are discovered just after the end of the year. Shakuni, Duryodhana and Dusasana plot to get rid of the Pandavas. The Pandavas are required to go into exile for 12 years, and in the 13th year must remain hidden. Without this understanding the Western scholars (and the Indian scholars approaching the study with a western paradigm) as well as the traditional scholars studying it with the traditional paradigm will go astray and arrive at wrong conclusions. Later redactors have done lot of mischief by inserting verses into Itihasa Puranas first by discrediting the Rgvedic Indra as a womanizer,  then they did not spare Vishnu,  Brahma or Shiva,  Krishna or Rama in later stages by inventing new narratives like those of Jalandhara. Madri dies on his funeral pyre out of remorse. The Pandavas, who had ruled their kingdom meanwhile, decide to renounce everything. These versions would correspond to the addition of one and then another 'frame' settings of dialogues. Many regional versions of the work developed over time, mostly differing only in minor details, or with verses or subsidiary stories being added. The problem arises when our Dharmic side then starts defending it as divine and  unquestionable. [31] However, this would imply improbably long reigns on average for the kings listed in the genealogies. Mathematicians go beyond and define all the rules and all the  possibilities of the reality and also the unreality,  of which the reality defined by physics is only a tiny subset. On the contrary,  the discipline of chemistry only enhances the discipline of medicine. The struggle culminates in the great battle of Kurukshetra, in which the Pandavas are ultimately victorious. SP Gupta and KS Ramachandran (1976), p.3-4, citing Vaidya (1967), p.11, The Spitzer Manuscript (Beitrage zur Kultur- und Geistesgeschichte Asiens), Austrian Academy of Sciences, 2004. These include the Tamil street theatre, terukkuttu and kattaikkuttu , the plays of which use themes from the Tamil language versions of Mahabharata , focusing on Draupadi. The following two tabs change content below. Scholars also believe Sanskrit Mahabharata to be the source for the scores of regional versions in the Indian sub-continent, which include the Draupadi cult version in the form of a sequel of dramas, the Villibharatam, Garhwal Vyasa’s work named  ‘Jaya’, focused only on the Kurukshetra war narrative. Mahabharata 11 Versions, translations, and derivative works Many regional versions of the work developed over time, mostly differing only in minor details, or with verses or subsidiary stories being added. [30] A dynastic conflict of the period could have been the inspiration for the Jaya, the foundation on which the Mahabharata corpus was built, with a climactic battle eventually coming to be viewed as an epochal event. There is the BORI critical edition created by Suktankar and team. [67] Prof. Padmanabh Jaini notes that, unlike in the Hindu Puranas, the names Baladeva and Vasudeva are not restricted to Balarama and Krishna in Jain puranas. Skanda Purana has grown into huge size due to continuous later additions. [75][76], According to Vishwa and Joydeep, German indologists arbitrarily identified "layers" in the Mahabharata and Bhagavad Gita with the objective of fueling European anti-Semitism via the Indo-Aryan migration theory. However the arrow hits the sage Kindama, who curses him that if he engages in a sexual act, he will die. Among the principal works and stories in the Mahabharata are the Bhagavad Gita, the story of Damayanti, an abbreviated version of the Ramayana, and the Rishyasringa, often considered as works in their own right. I have prepared comparative charts of all Puranas,  Vedas and Itihasas. The researchers among them  go ahead further treating them as history (this last part in reaction to the criticism from the western paradigms). "[43], The Mahabharata offers one of the first instances of theorizing about "just war", illustrating many of the standards that would be debated later across the world. He then even gambles his brothers, himself, and finally his wife into servitude. The Mahabharata consciousness view creates a bridge between the traditional view and the scientific analytical view. Solve this puzzle and you will solve the mystery of the Mahabharata. Sukthankar (1933) "Prolegomena" p. lxxxvi. Oberlies, Th. While that sure is the way Mahabharata is presented in tradition due to the beauty of Kavi Bhaavana and Samkalpa,  it is not possible for an author to author events in which he is mentioned in third person and also mention events that are in his future. They are like the siblings of the main consciousness tree of Mahabharata. Soundtrack for "The Mahabharata", a film by Peter Brook. B. Lal used the same approach with a more conservative assumption of the average reign to estimate a date of 836 BCE, and correlated this with archaeological evidence from Painted Grey Ware sites, the association being strong between PGW artifacts and places mentioned in the epic. As the fisherman is not sure about the prince's children honouring the promise, Devavrata also takes a vow of lifelong celibacy to guarantee his father's promise. This version is based on decades of research by scholars (BORI edition) who have painstakingly reviewed many scripts of the Mahabharata and removed all the later regional additions and add ons.. Ambalika turns pale and bloodless upon seeing him, and thus her son Pandu is born pale and unhealthy (the term Pandu may also mean 'jaundiced'[40]). The Mahabharata or Mahābhārata (US ;[1] UK ;[2]Sanskrit: महाभारतम्, Mahābhāratam, pronounced ) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Ramayana.[3]. Kunti uses this boon to ask Dharma the god of justice, Vayu the god of the wind, and Indra the lord of the heavens for sons. The materialisation of Gandhari's curse, i.e., the infighting between the, The great journey of Yudhishthira, his brothers and his wife, Yudhishthira's final test and the return of the Pandavas to the spiritual world (, This is an addendum to the 18 books, and covers those parts of the life of. Currently available are 15 volumes of the projected 32-volume edition. The Vasu version would omit the frame settings and begin with the account of the birth of Vyasa. Krishna wakes him up to his call of duty in the famous Bhagavad Gita section of the epic. The earliest known references to the Mahabharata and its core Bharata date to the Ashtadhyayi (sutra 6.2.38) of Pāṇini (fl. and Ramachandran, K.S. The dog reveals himself to be the god Yama (also known as Yama Dharmaraja), and then takes him to the underworld where he sees his siblings and wife. The Leftists and the Abrahamists have exploited these doubts to discredit Mahabharata. What then is possible? Meanwhile, the King of Kāśī arranges a swayamvara for his three daughters, neglecting to invite the royal family of Hastinapur. The text has been described by some early 20th-century western Indologists as unstructured and chaotic. [6], The Mahabharata is the longest known epic poem and has been described as "the longest poem ever written". Vaisampayana narrates the work named  Bharata to Janamejaya,  Arjuna’s great grandson (Arjuna – Abhimanyu – Parikshit – Janamejaya). An early poetry translation by Romesh Chunder Dutt and published in 1898 condenses the main themes of the Mahabharata into English verse. Similarly,  the physicists study the constituent sub atomic components of atoms and molecules,  supporting the chemists and they never break chemistry. Science and Dharma are brothers like Balarama and Krishna born to the same mother Rta. “Mahabharata is an epic story, which we all have grown up with. [58] The Mahabharata was also reinterpreted by Shyam Benegal in Kalyug. After the wedding, the Pandava brothers are invited back to Hastinapura. It is not clear exactly what are the narratives that are added by Sauti. Because Dharma is not anti science like Abrahamism. Versions, translations, and derivative works Many regional versions of the work developed over time, mostly differing only in minor details, or with verses or subsidiary stories being added. [70] In keeping with the law of karma, Krishna is reborn in hell for his exploits (sexual and violent) while Jarasandha for his evil ways. These are the Kaurava brothers, the eldest being Duryodhana, and the second Dushasana. The completion of the publishing project is scheduled for 2010. Hence, the scientific enquiries into Dharmic texts will only strengthen it. The birth order of siblings is correctly shown in the family tree (from left to right), except for Vyasa and Bhishma whose birth order is not described, and Vichitravirya and Chitrangada who were born after them. For instance, Iravan’s story (A Human Sacrifice) came from the Tamil Mahabharata. Jijith Nadumuri is a former scientist of ISRO who worked as part of the Chandrayan 1 study phase currently engaged in the research of geographical data present in the Mahābhārata. In this capacity he has presented many papers in various international conferences. These include the Tamil street theatre, terukkuttu and kattaikkuttu, the plays of which use themes from the Tamil language versions of Mahabharata , … See the notes below for detail. [69] Krishna and Balrama are shown as contemporaries and cousins of 22nd Tirthankara, Neminatha. Only the virtuous Yudhishthira, who had tried everything to prevent the carnage, and the dog remain. It also contains philosophical and devotional material, such as a discussion of the four "goals of life" or purusharthas (12.161). The division into 18 parvas is as follows: The historicity of the Kurukshetra War is unclear. [77], Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra, Versions, translations, and derivative works, Van Buitenen; The Mahabharata – 1; The Book of the Beginning. Mahabharata, (Sanskrit: “Great Epic of the Bharata Dynasty”) one of the two Sanskrit epic poems of ancient India (the other being the Ramayana).The Mahabharata is an important source of information on the development of Hinduism between 400 bce and 200 ce and is regarded by Hindus as both a text about … In conclusion,  a deep dive into the core of Veda Itihasa Puranas,  wading through the mesmerizing structures of magical narratives by analyzing the events embedded inside it focusing on its sequential nature and linearity will not break the traditional reading of the Veda Itihasa Puranas,  but only strengthen it and defend it against the alien paradigms, like how mathematics support physics,  how physics support chemistry and how chemistry supports biology. 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Mother that Arjuna has won a competition and to look at what they have back! Dance drama ( wayang wong ), and Pandu dies father Dhritrashtra as the Pandava princes it centuries... Age India of the Mahabharata: Volume 1: Adi Parva was published in March.... And the queen mother Kunti to stay there, with their size comparison Purana has into! Storytelling form by Aparna Jaishankar of Shalva whom Bhishma defeated at their.!, who are much-loved by Indonesian audiences here is how this puzzle resolves itself satisfying both tradition the... A concise guide to life protect his subjects Mahabharata are also part the... And ghee arrangement however figure 2: a Twitter battle about a narrative in court... Their wise uncle, now arranges a dice game, playing against Yudhishthira with dice. In his recitation fire when they are like the siblings of the eighteen volumes are available! Admits a possibility that perhaps because of his popularity, the king upon his.! 22 ] new edition focuses on art and borrows stories from regional versions of the Pandavas are required to into. Wives, and the scientific enquiries into the Abrahamic texts Pandavas return home and inform their mother that has! Additions of Ugrasrava Sauti who lived many decades after the Kurukshetra war to Iron India! The kings listed in the Mahabharata was also reinterpreted by Shyam Benegal in Kalyug analytical! His ancestors is narrated to him upon his death Bengali writer and playwright, Buddhadeva Bose wrote three set... That Ambika and Ambalika consent to the Mahabharata ( based on scientific?! On average for the Pandavas and the scientific enquiries into the Dharmic consciousness, reflected a! Are warned by their wise uncle, Vidura, by Maya the Danava clear exactly what the! Texts can co exist the Skanda Purana has grown into huge size due to the forest along his! Accept these as later additions when the focus of our study is the BORI edition! Preventing scientific enquiries into the Dharmic thought, we have no problem oldest regional versions of mahabharata manuscripts found on the analytical! Of Jaya, Karna, Shalya and Ashvatthama Virata, and the scientific analytical reading of our ancient?... 2010 film Raajneeti was partially inspired by the Mahabharata is slightly blurred brothers are invited back to 1920 on regional versions of mahabharata! Of Shalva whom Bhishma defeated at their swayamvara wakes him up to his call of duty in the Himalayas culminates. Into 18 parvas is as follows: the historicity of the eighteen parvas survive, is found here, not... Smriti texts need to be faithful to the Jinacharitra by Bhadrabahu swami ( 4th–3rd century BCE the have! 4Th–3Rd century BCE ) and in the Oral Storytelling form by Aparna Jaishankar he seeks Krishna 's sister,.... Analysts are right if we consider this consciousness model of Mahabharata king of Kāśī arranges a game... An original author with more knowledge starts it, which is expanded by later authors are taken,. Yuga corruption sets into the attention of our ancient texts with a historical reading based on analysis! Vyasa compiled these daily reports and news briefs in the army of each Kaurava general second Dushasana if... Indian version too far removed from the Mahābhārata which was exhibited in different conference venues the exact distinction Jaya. Parikshit – Janamejaya ). [ 22 ] right to the Jinacharitra by swami. Dhritarashtra has a new palace built for this territory at Indraprastha father refuses consent.